Software Patent Drafting A comprehensive guide on the steps for drafting patents in the software field


The software industry is evolving at a breakneck pace, and so is the need for intellectual property protection. Patents serve as a central legal tool to ensure this protection, but drafting them in this field is complex and requires a great deal of expertise.

In this article, we will comprehensively review the aspects of software patent drafting, focusing on legal requirements, writing strategy, tips for streamlining the process, and other important details.

Our goal is to provide you with essential tools and information for drafting effective software patents, enabling you to protect your developments comprehensively and successfully.

The article is divided into several chapters, each focusing on a specific aspect of patent drafting: basic requirements for patent registration, writing strategy, formulating claims, creating drawings and diagrams, drafting the background section and the detailed description section.

In each chapter, we will discuss the most important topics, providing examples and detailed explanations.

Ultimately, we hope that this article will help you better understand the software patent drafting process and enable you to draft strong and effective patents that will protect your intellectual property rights.

General Principles for Software Patent Registration


Before delving into the drafting of a software patent, it is crucial to ensure that the invention meets the legal requirements. These requirements vary across different countries and are governed by respective patent laws and relevant case law.

Patentability of Software

It is important to note that software patents are not granted in all jurisdictions. In Israel, for instance, there are certain limitations on registering patents in this domain. However, in many countries, including the United States, Europe, and China, software patents can be obtained provided they meet the following criteria:

  1. Novelty: The invention must be new, meaning it has not been previously disclosed or used in public.

  2. Inventive Step or Non-obvious: The invention must exhibit an inventive step, demonstrating a non-obvious technical solution rather than an anticipated one.

  3. Industrial Applicability: The invention must be capable of industrial application, meaning it is not an abstract idea or concept.

  4. Technical Invention: Software patents in Israel and many other countries are protected only if they pertain to a “technical invention.” This is defined as a technical solution to a technical problem that can be implemented through software or hardware.

Addressing the “Technical Invention” Requirement

This aspect poses a significant challenge in software patent registration. To overcome it, the patent application should focus on the process or method by which the software operates on a computer or mobile computing device. Additionally, the application must include any associated hardware or components in which the software is embedded. In simpler terms, standalone software is not necessarily eligible for patent protection. However, a unique process performed by the software on a computer may be entitled to such protection. Therefore, proper drafting of the patent application and emphasizing the uniqueness of the process are key to success.

Seeking Expert Guidance

It is important to note that these are general principles only, and each case should be evaluated individually. Consulting with a patent attorney specializing in patent law is highly recommended to ensure your invention meets the legal requirements and to assist you in drafting an effective patent application.

Additional Resources

For further information on the scope and nature of software patent protection in Israel, Europe, and the United States, please refer to this article.

The Steps to Drafting a Software Patent

Bringing a groundbreaking idea to the software market begins with drafting a successful patent. This patent will serve as your legal protection document, granting you exclusive rights to your invention.

However, drafting a software patent is more complex than drafting patents in other fields. The reason for this is that the definition of “technical invention” in the software domain is narrower, and there are many restrictions on patents in areas such as software that is a mathematical expression and software for a business process.

Therefore, it is important to pay close attention to each step of the patent drafting process. For more information on the structure of a patent, see this article.

Step 1: Deep Understanding of the Innovation: A Problem-Solution Approach

The first step is to gain a deep understanding of your technological innovation. View it as a process that addresses a specific problem and offers an effective solution. The better you understand the essence of the innovation, the more precisely you can draft a patent application that stays away from known publications in the field.

To achieve this, it is advisable to prepare a comprehensive mapping that specifies the software’s operation, its components, methods/usage processes, and the desired outcome. This document may also include drawings, flowcharts, and user interface diagrams. In addition to flowcharts, it is also necessary to prepare system architecture diagrams (Block Diagrams). These diagrams describe all the hardware components connected to each other in a network. They provide a broader picture of the technological system, including both software and hardware.

This mapping is designed to identify and clearly describe the “innovation points” of the software, that is, the unique features, functionalities, and limitations that distinguish it from conventional systems or existing technologies in the market.

The main goal of this step is to clearly identify the unique innovation in your software. What makes it different from existing systems? What problems does it solve in an innovative way? Be sure to formulate the innovation clearly and concisely, focusing on the unique value it offers.

Step 2: Drafting Claims

The second step is drafting the claims, specifically the independent claim. Claims are the most crucial part of the patent application. They define the exact scope of protection you seek for your invention. Precise and meticulous claim drafting is critical to the success of your patent application.

For an article on drafting patent claims, see this article

The Independent Claim in a Patent

The heart of the claims is the independent claim. The independent claim is a claim that defines the invention in its entirety, without relying on other claims. It constitutes the “core” of the patent application and is intended to define the precise scope of protection you seek. Effectively drafting an independent claim in the software domain requires a deep understanding of both technology and law, adhering to these key principles:

a. Identify the Novel Elements: The first step is to identify the unique novel elements in your software. What specific functions, algorithms, or technologies distinguish your solution from existing ones? Focus on these elements when drafting the independent claim.

b. Use Precise Technical Language: Drafting an independent claim necessitates the use of precise and clear technical language. Define the novel elements in detail and concisely, using standard technical terms in the software field. Avoid using vague terms or unclear expressions.

c. Define the Invention Functionally: It is recommended to draft the independent claim functionally, meaning focus on what the invention does rather than how it does it. Functional drafting allows you to protect the invention against future applications that may achieve the same result through different means.

d. Use Broad Terms: In addition to functional drafting, it is important to use broad terms in the independent claim. Broad terms allow you to expand the scope of patent protection and cover a wider range of applications.

e. Comply with Patent Office Formalities: Each patent office establishes unique formal requirements for drafting patent claims. It is crucial to ensure that your independent claim complies with these requirements, both in form and content. Non-compliance with formal requirements may lead to the rejection of the patent application.

Example of Drafting an Independent Claim in a Software Patent

It is important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all formula for drafting an independent claim, and each case requires specific consideration based on the details of the invention. However, several examples can be presented to illustrate the key drafting principles:

Example 1: Task Management System

Claim 1:

A task management system comprising:

A user interface allowing users to create, edit, and delete tasks.

A mechanism for sorting tasks by category, due date, or status (open, closed, etc.).

A reminder mechanism allowing users to set reminders for important tasks.

A collaboration mechanism allowing other users to view and update shared tasks.

Example 2: Data Compression Algorithm

Claim 1:

A method for compressing data, comprising the steps of:

Identifying recurring sequences in the data.

Replacing recurring sequences with short references.

Applying additional compression techniques, such as arithmetic coding or Huffman coding.

Generating a compressed file containing the original data and the compression data.

Example 3: GPS Navigation Application

Claim 1:

A GPS navigation application comprising:

A digital map displaying the user’s current location.

A search engine allowing users to search for addresses or points of interest.

A route planning mechanism allowing users to plan customized routes.

A voice guidance mechanism providing navigation instructions during travel.

Of course, these are just general examples intended to illustrate the structure of Claim 1. The drafting of the independent claim should be tailored to the unique characteristics of your invention.

For a detailed example of drafting a patent in the software field, see for example one of WAZE’s main patents, American patent (US8762035B2):

Additional Tips for Drafting Effective Software Patent Independent Claim

1. Review Relevant Software Patent Claims:

Examining relevant software patent claims can provide valuable insights into effective drafting approaches and terminology. Analyze claims from patents granted to similar inventions to understand how they structure and define the scope of protection.

2. Utilize Visual Aids:

Incorporate diagrams, flowcharts, or other visual representations to illustrate the novel elements and functionality of your invention within the independent claim. Visual aids can enhance clarity and effectively communicate the technical aspects of your invention.

3. Consider Desired Protection Scope:

Carefully consider the extent of protection you seek through the patent when drafting the independent claim. Do you aim to protect the entire process, the user interface, a specific algorithm, or a combination of components? Clearly define the scope to align with your business objectives.

Remember, an effectively drafted independent claim in a software patent is crucial for the success of your patent application and securing legal protection for your innovation. Adhering to these principles will help you clearly define the scope of your invention and enable you to maximize the business benefits of the patent.

Drafting Dependent Claims in Software Patents


Dependent claims are patent claims that refer to one or more independent claims and add further details or limitations to them. They allow you to define your invention in a hierarchical and comprehensive manner, focusing on specific components or different applications of the invention.

Purpose and Importance of Dependent Claims

Dependent claims serve several crucial purposes in software patents:

  1. Narrowing the Scope of Protection: They allow you to refine the scope of protection claimed in the independent claim by adding specific elements or limitations. This helps to clearly define the boundaries of your invention and distinguish it from prior art.

  2. Protecting Specific Embodiments: You can use dependent claims to protect specific embodiments or implementations of your invention. This provides broader protection for different ways in which your invention can be realized.

  3. Addressing Examiner’s Objections: During the patent examination process, the examiner may raise objections regarding the breadth or novelty of the independent claim. In such cases, dependent claims can be used to narrow the scope or address specific concerns, potentially increasing the chances of obtaining patent protection.

  4. Enhancing Claim Clarity: Dependent claims can improve the clarity and specificity of the overall patent claims, making it easier for readers to understand the invention and its various aspects.

Key Aspects of Drafting Dependent Claims in Software

When drafting dependent claims in the software domain, consider the following key principles:

  1. Reference to Independent Claim: Each dependent claim must clearly refer to a specific independent claim, indicating the claim from which it depends.

  2. Adding Details or Limitations: The dependent claim should introduce specific details or limitations that are not already present in the independent claim. These additions should further define the scope of protection.

  3. Hierarchical Structure: Dependent claims can be used to create a hierarchical structure, with each level adding more detail or specificity. This helps to organize the claims logically and effectively.

  4. Clarity and Conciseness: Ensure that the dependent claims are clear, concise, and easy to understand. Avoid ambiguity and use precise language to accurately convey the added details or limitations.

  5. Consistency with Invention: The dependent claims must be consistent with the overall description and scope of the invention as disclosed in the patent application.

Examples of Dependent Claims

Example 1: Task Management System

Claim 2:

A task management system as described in Claim 1, further comprising a user interface that allows users to set recurring reminders for tasks.

Example 2: Data Compression Algorithm

Claim 2:

A method for compressing data as described in Claim 1, further comprising the use of Huffman coding for compressing textual data.

Example 3: GPS Navigation Application

Claim 2:

A GPS navigation application as described in Claim 1, further allowing users to search for points of interest by category, such as restaurants, hotels, or tourist attractions.

Note: These are just general examples, and the drafting of dependent claims should be tailored to the unique characteristics of your invention.


Dependent claims play a vital role in software patents, enabling you to precisely define the scope of protection, address examiner’s objections, and enhance the overall clarity of the patent claims. By carefully crafting dependent claims that align with your invention’s unique features and applications, you can maximize the effectiveness of your patent protection strategy.

Additional Tips for Drafting Effective Dependent Claims in Software Patents

1. Utilize Multiple Dependent Claims:

Employ multiple dependent claims to comprehensively define your invention, addressing various aspects and embodiments. This allows for a more granular and nuanced protection strategy.

2. Ensure Logical Connection:

Maintain a clear logical connection between dependent claims and the independent claim they reference. Ensure that each dependent claim adds specific details or limitations that align with the broader scope of the independent claim.

3. Use Relative Terms:

Leverage relative terms like “comprising,” “consisting of,” “providing,” etc., to establish the relationship between dependent claims and the independent claim. These terms help to clearly indicate the additional elements or limitations introduced by each dependent claim.

4. Consider Desired Protection Scope:

Carefully consider the extent of protection you seek when drafting dependent claims. Do you aim to protect specific components, different applications, or combinations of elements? Tailor the dependent claims to align with your desired protection strategy.

Remember, effectively drafted dependent claims in a software patent are crucial for securing comprehensive legal protection for your invention. Adhering to these principles will help you clearly define the scope of your invention, enhance the clarity of your patent claims, and maximize the business benefits of your patent.

Example for Reference: For a detailed example of dependent claim drafting in software, refer to one of the key patents of WAZE mentioned previously.

Step 3: Drawings and Diagrams for Software Patents

Drawings and diagrams can serve as valuable tools for illustrating the novel elements and operation of software in a patent application. They provide a visual representation of the invention, complementing the written description and claims.

Importance of Drawings and Diagrams

Drawings and diagrams play a crucial role in software patents by:

  • Enhancing Clarity: They visually convey complex technical concepts and relationships, making the invention more understandable to the patent examiner and potential licensees.

  • Supporting Claims: They provide visual evidence to support the scope of the claims, demonstrating how the invention functions and incorporates the claimed features.

  • Completing the Disclosure: They complement the written description, providing additional details and insights that may be difficult to express solely in words.

Key Aspects of Drawings and Diagrams for Software Patents

When creating drawings and diagrams for software patents, consider these essential aspects:

1. Relevance to Claims: The drawings and diagrams should directly relate to the patent claims, illustrating the novel elements and their functionality as defined in the claims.

2. Clarity and Comprehensibility: Use clear and understandable symbols, diagrams, and labels that are consistent with standard conventions in the software field. Avoid ambiguity and ensure the visual elements are easy to interpret.

3. Technical Accuracy: The drawings and diagrams must be technically accurate and consistent with the technical description of the invention. They should accurately represent the structure, components, and operation of the software.

4. Simplicity and Focus: Aim for simplicity and clarity, avoiding unnecessary details or embellishments that may distract from the core elements of the invention. Focus on conveying the essential aspects of the invention visually.

Examples of Drawings and Diagrams for Software Patents

  • Flowcharts: Illustrate the process flow of a software program, depicting the sequence of steps, decision points, and data flow.

  • Architectural Diagrams: Represent the overall structure of a software system, showing the components, their interactions, and relationships.

  • Screenshots: Capture the user interface of a software program, demonstrating the layout, controls, and functionality of specific features.

  • Algorithmic Diagrams: Visualize the steps and operations of specific algorithms used in the software.

Additional Tips

  • Utilize Professional Graphics Software: Employ professional graphics software to create high-quality drawings and diagrams that are visually appealing and easy to understand.

  • Incorporate Annotations and Labels: Use clear and concise annotations, labels, and legends to explain the elements and relationships depicted in the drawings and diagrams.

  • Comply with Patent Office Requirements: Ensure that the drawings and diagrams adhere to the specific formatting and submission requirements of the relevant patent office.

Remember, well-crafted drawings and diagrams can significantly enhance the patent examiner’s understanding of your invention and increase the chances of a successful patent application. By adhering to these principles, you can create high-quality and informative visuals that effectively communicate the novel aspects and operation of your software invention.

For a detailed example, refer to one of the key patents of WAZE mentioned previously.

Step 4: Drafting the Background Section for a Software Patent

The background section of a software patent serves to introduce the existing technological landscape in the relevant field, focusing on the prevailing problems and solutions. This section is crucial for understanding the invention and its novelty, assisting the patent examiner in assessing the invention’s impact on the field.

Importance of the Background Section

The background section plays a critical role in software patents by:

  • Establishing Context: It provides a context for the invention, explaining the current state of the art and the challenges faced in the relevant domain.

  • Highlighting Problems: It identifies and explains the limitations and shortcomings of existing solutions, demonstrating the need for an improved approach.

  • Introducing the Invention: It sets the stage for the introduction of the invention, hinting at the problems it addresses and the potential benefits it offers.

Key Aspects of Drafting the Background Section

When drafting the background section for a software patent, consider these essential aspects:

1. Describe the Existing Technological Landscape:

  • Provide a clear and concise overview of existing solutions and approaches in the relevant field.

  • Focus on commonly used methodologies, technologies, and industry standards.

  • Avoid unnecessary technical jargon and maintain a clear and understandable style.

2. Identify Problems and Limitations:

  • Explicitly identify the drawbacks, inefficiencies, or shortcomings of existing solutions.

  • Explain the negative impact of these problems on users, businesses, or the industry as a whole.

  • Provide concrete examples or data to support the identified problems.

3. Establish the Need for the Invention:

  • Clearly articulate the rationale for a new invention, highlighting the unmet needs or limitations of existing solutions.

  • Explain why a new approach is necessary to address the identified problems.

  • Avoid introducing the details of your invention; focus on establishing the need for innovation.

4. Link to the Claims:

  • Ensure a clear connection between the background section and the patent claims.

  • Demonstrate how the identified problems and limitations are addressed by the proposed invention.

  • Set the stage for the introduction of the invention and its unique features.

Example of a Background Section for a Software Patent


Task management has become an essential aspect of the modern digital world, with individuals and organizations relying on various applications and tools to organize and manage their daily tasks. However, existing task management solutions suffer from several limitations, including:

  • Inefficiency: Many solutions are cumbersome to use and difficult to manage, leading to wasted time and resources.

  • Inflexibility: A lack of customization options prevents users from adapting the software to their specific needs and workflows.

  • Collaboration Challenges: Effective collaboration between teams is often hampered by limited sharing and communication features.

This invention aims to address these limitations and provide a more efficient, flexible, and collaborative task management solution.

Note: This is just a general example, and the drafting of the background section should be tailored to the unique characteristics of your invention.

Additional Tips

  • Use Specific Examples: Employ concrete examples to illustrate the existing problems and limitations in the field.

  • Cite References: Reference relevant academic studies or industry publications to substantiate claims about the existing technological landscape.

  • Clarity and Conciseness: Maintain clear and concise language, avoiding unnecessary technical jargon and overly complex explanations.

  • Logical Flow: Ensure a logical flow between the background section and the other parts of the patent application.

Remember, an effective background section in a software patent can significantly improve the chances of success. Adhering to these principles will help you present your invention in a clear and compelling manner, highlighting its novelty and the value it offers.

For a detailed example, refer to one of the key patents of WAZE mentioned previously.

Step 5: Drafting the Detailed Description for a Software Patent

The detailed description of a software patent serves to explain the invention in a comprehensive manner, focusing on the novel elements, the operation process, and the practical implementation. This section is crucial for understanding and enabling the invention, assisting the patent examiner in assessing the feasibility and scope of protection sought.

Key Aspects of Drafting the Detailed Description

When drafting the detailed description for a software patent, consider these essential aspects:

1. Detailed Description of Novel Elements:

  • Clearly and precisely describe each novel element defined in the patent claims.

  • Use accurate and unambiguous technical terminology to convey the invention’s unique features.

  • Explain the function and purpose of each novel element in relation to the overall invention.

2. Explanation of the Operation Process:

  • Provide a step-by-step explanation of how the invention operates, detailing the sequence of actions and interactions.

  • Describe the role of each novel element in contributing to the overall operation of the invention.

  • Use diagrams, flowcharts, or other visual aids to illustrate the operation process if necessary.

3. Demonstration of Practical Implementation:

  • Provide concrete examples of how the invention can be implemented in real-world applications or scenarios.

  • Describe the benefits and advantages of using the invention for specific tasks or problems.

  • Consider including use cases, case studies, or prototypes to demonstrate the practical value of the invention.

4. Link to Claims:

  • Ensure a clear and direct connection between the detailed description and the patent claims.

  • Demonstrate how each described element and process contributes to the implementation of the claimed invention.

  • Use consistent terminology and references to align the description with the claims.

Recommended Structure for the Detailed Description

The detailed description should follow a structured format that facilitates understanding and review:

  1. Introduction: Begin with a brief overview of the invention and its objectives.

  2. Description of Novel Elements:

    • Elaborate on each novel element defined in the claims.

    • Use precise technical terms and clear explanations.

    • Explain the function and purpose of each element.

  3. Explanation of Operation Process:

    • Provide a detailed breakdown of the invention’s operation.

    • Describe the sequence of steps and interactions.

    • Illustrate the process using diagrams or flowcharts if needed.

  4. Demonstration of Practical Implementation:

    • Present concrete examples of real-world applications.

    • Highlight the benefits and advantages of using the invention.

    • Consider including use cases, case studies, or prototypes.

  5. Visual Aids and Code Examples:

    • Utilize diagrams, flowcharts, or 3D models to enhance understanding.

    • Provide code snippets to illustrate specific functionalities (if applicable).

    • Ensure visual aids and code examples are properly referenced and explained.

For a detailed example, refer to one of the key patents of WAZE mentioned previously.

Limitations of Software Patents

Despite the numerous benefits of software patents, it is crucial to acknowledge the existing limitations in this domain. These limitations stem from the inherent challenges in defining a “technical invention” in the software realm and the desire to foster unrestricted technological advancements in this field.

Key Examples of Limitations:

  1. Software Implementing Mathematical Expressions: Patents on software that solely implements mathematical expressions are generally not granted in Israel and many other countries. This is because mathematical expressions are considered abstract ideas not susceptible to patent protection.

  2. Software Implementing Business Processes: Patents on business-oriented software may be granted under specific conditions; however, significant limitations exist. For instance, patents on purely business methods are not patentable.

  3. Software Performing Basic Computer Functions: Patents on software that performs fundamental computer operations, such as data storage or file management, are typically not granted.

  4. Software as Part of a “Software System”: Patenting an individual component within a “software system” may only be possible if that component exhibits unique interactions with other system elements.

  5. Software Embodying an Abstract Idea: Patents on software that merely embodies an abstract concept, such as a business or mathematical idea, are generally not obtainable.

Importance of Legal Counsel

It is essential to note that these are general limitations, and each case should be evaluated individually. Consulting with a patent attorney specializing in software patents is highly recommended to determine if your invention meets the patentability requirements.


Effective software patent drafting is crucial for the success of a patent application. A clear, accurate, and comprehensive description section will enable the patent examiner to thoroughly understand the invention, assess its novelty and contribution, and ultimately grant the patent application.

A central aspect of drafting the description section is the close connection to the patent claims. Every novel element and operational process described in the description section must be directly linked to the relevant claims, explaining how they contribute to the realization of the invention defined in the claims.

Remember, effective software patent drafting is a powerful tool for protecting your intellectual property rights. Adhering to these principles will help you increase the chances of success for your patent application.

This article has provided a general overview of the topic, but it is highly recommended to consult with an attorney specializing in patent law and intellectual property before drafting a specific patent.

Additional Resources:

  • Book: Y. Drori, “Patent Law”, Praelstein Ginnosar Publishing, pp. 266-296 (2023) (Hebrew).
  • Book: Y. Drori, Y. Werzansky-Orland, “Intellectual Property Law in Israel”, Praelstein Ginnosar Publishing, pp. 13-119 (2019) (English)

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